Alice Palmer-Ross, Pavel V Ovseiko, Shirin Heidari
BMJ Global Health – March 27, 2021
The COVID-19 pandemic has brought to the fore the implications of sex and gender differences to human health and well-being. Evidence to date indicates that men are at higher risk of severe disease and death than women, while women seem more likely to suffer from long-term COVID-19, and experience negative social and economic impacts. Biological sex as well as gender roles and behaviours can affect exposure to the virus and influence the prevalence of pre-existing conditions or harmful habits. Incorporating sex and gender considerations into clinical research on COVID-19 from the outset would help to identify differential patterns of risk, underlying reasons for disparate outcomes and to develop interventions to effectively respond to the various needs of women and men.